Weight problems is a worldwide well being downside. From 1980 to 2013, the worldwide prevalence of grownup obese and weight problems elevated by 27.5% and 47.1%, respectively. The variety of individuals with obese and weight problems elevated from 857 million in 1980 to 2.1 billion in 2013.1 Weight problems is a vital danger issue for varied persistent illnesses, akin to hyperlipidemia, hypertension, kind 2 diabetes, fatty liver illness, coronary heart illness, and most cancers.2 Weight problems-related prices are big and have change into an enormous monetary burden.3 Due to this fact, the excessive burden of obesity-related illnesses has prompted individuals to seek out new and improved methods to forestall and alleviate weight problems.
As a each day beverage, inexperienced tea has proven useful well being results, particularly its weight reduction impact. Inexperienced tea can cut back the micellar solubility of ldl cholesterol on the intestinal stage, thereby lowering its absorption.4 It could actually additionally cut back low-density lipoprotein ranges, enhance the full antioxidant capability of plasma,5 enhance vitality consumption,6 promote thermogenesis and fats oxidation,7 and relieve hyperlipidemia.8 Tea is extremely valued due to its style, aroma, well being advantages, and varied social and cultural causes.4
Oil tea is a each day drink in northeastern Guangxi, China. The Gongcheng oil tea is a typical consultant of oil tea and has now change into a geopolitically distinctive meals product. The Gongcheng oil tea preparation course of is as follows: put tea, ginger, edible oil right into a devoted iron teapot and stir-fried. Subsequently, these uncooked supplies are uniformly mashed with a like “7” form wood mallet and simmered with boiling water for 10 min. The combination is filtered, and the residuum is repeated mash, boil thrice. Tea accommodates tea polyphenols, soluble polysaccharides, and caffeine, and ginger accommodates gingerol. These substances have varied pharmacological results, akin to anti-allergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-obesity.9,10 Conventional Chinese language drugs believes that ingesting oil tea is nice for well being. At current, some animal experiments have discovered that oil tea reduces physique weight and improves blood lipid ranges in hyperlipidemic rats and diabetic mice.11,12 Nevertheless, the impact of oil tea on human well being has not been confirmed but. Due to this fact, we performed an epidemiological survey to analyze the relations of oil tea consumption with weight problems and dyslipidemia. In native consuming habits, residents are used to cooking oil tea at mealtimes, individuals who drink extra oil tea would take longer to eat and eat extra meals. As well as, oil tea is often used as the bottom of sizzling pot in native areas, leading to elevated oil tea consumption, which is commonly accompanied by a rise within the consumption of meat meals and native specialty fried snacks. It’s not clear whether or not extreme consumption of meat and different meals will have an effect on the lipid-lowering perform of oil tea. Due to this fact, we have to management the affect of dietary elements.
Supplies and Strategies
The location of this examine was Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi, China.
In accordance with the cross-sectional sampling survey pattern dimension calculation formulation:
N is the sample size, Z is the statistical quantity, α = 0.05, Z = 1.96, p is the expected prevalence, q = 1- p, d is the allowable error, d=0.1p. The expected prevalence of obesity in middle-aged and elderly people was about 18%,13 the anticipated prevalence of central weight problems was 44%,14 and the anticipated prevalence of dyslipidemia was 44.2%.15 The estimated pattern dimension for this examine was 1749, to which 10%-15% of the pattern was added. Research topics had been chosen who met the next standards: a) resided within the examine space; b) had been 30 years of age and older; c) full blood take a look at, peak, weight, waist circumference, and questionnaire data; d) believable vitality consumption, between 600–4000kcal. Lastly, a complete of 2001 adults aged 30 years and over had been included on this examine (2018–2019). The current examine was performed in accordance with the rules laid down within the Declaration of Helsinki, and all procedures involving human topics had been authorized by the Ethics Committee of Guilin Medical College. Written knowledgeable consent was obtained from all the topics.
Members had been requested to take away their footwear, hats, and coats and to put on solely close-fitting clothes for peak, weight, and waist measurements. The instrument was calibrated earlier than the take a look at, the burden was measured to an accuracy of 0.1 kg utilizing a weight scale, and the peak was measured to an accuracy of 0.1 cm utilizing a steel column kind peak meter. The waist circumference was measured to an accuracy of 0.1 cm utilizing a leather-based ruler 1 cm above the navel. Blood strain was measured utilizing an digital sphygmomanometer (HEM −7112; Omron) calibrated with a mercury column sphygmomanometer, and the topics had been positioned in a sitting or supine place with their arms flat and on the similar peak as their hearts. All examine topics collected fasting blood samples from cubital veins within the morning after fasting for no less than 12 hours. Fasting blood glucose (FPG) was examined by a blood routine analyzer (Sysmex CS-1600, Shanghai, China). Serum whole ldl cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein ldl cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein ldl cholesterol (HDL-C) had been examined by a blood biochemical detector (Hitachi 7600–020, Kyoto, Japan) at Gongcheng County Individuals’s Hospital.
Evaluation of Meals Consumption and Oil Tea Consumption
Weight loss program was assessed by a meals frequency questionnaire (FFQ) referring to the questionnaire designed by Liu et al16 and Wang et al.17 The contents of vitality and vitamins in meals had been referred to Chinese language Meals Composition Desk (2009).18 The analysis topics had been requested to pick out the bowl from a set of ordinary bowls of various specs to explain the consumption of oil tea and an digital steadiness was used to weigh the uncooked supplies in oil tea. The members who consumed oil tea each day had been divided into 5 teams based mostly on their non-consumption standing and quartile of consumption from low to excessive (teams non-drink oil tea, Q1–This fall). The Q1–This fall teams had the next each day oil tea consumption: 5.36 mL < Q1 ≤ 260 mL, 260 mL < Q2 ≤ 400 mL, 400 mL < Q3 ≤ 720 mL, and This fall > 720 mL. The identical grouping technique was used for the tea and ginger content material in oil tea.
Diagnostic Standards for Dyslipidemia
In accordance with the Nationwide Ldl cholesterol Training Panel (NCEP) Grownup Remedy Panel III (ATP III) to categorise dyslipidemia.19 The excessive TC was TC ≥ 6.22 mmol/L, the excessive TG was TG ≥ 2.26 mmol/L, the excessive LDL-C was LDL-C ≥ 4.14mmol/L, the low-HDL-C was HDL-C < 1.04 mmol/L. In accordance with the WHO-recommended diagnostic standards of weight problems for Asian populations,20 obese and weight problems had been indicated by 23.0 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 27.5 kg/m2 and BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2, respectively; belly weight problems was outlined as WC ≥ 90 cm in males and WC ≥ 80 cm in girls.
Evaluation of Covariates
Data on age, ethnicity, training stage, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption had been obtained within the face-to-face interviews utilizing standardized and structured questionnaires. Smoking was outlined as at the moment smoking no less than one cigarette per day. Alcohol consumption was outlined as ingesting no less than 50g of alcohol or extra no less than as soon as a month. The members who had been retired or doing house responsibilities, unemployed for a couple of 12 months, or bodily disabled had been thought of to be not working. Occupations that concerned primarily sitting or standing at work, akin to administrative workers, salespersons, and doormen, had been outlined as gentle bodily actions. Occupations that centered on common bodily exercise at work, akin to woodwork, electrical upkeep, and development, had been outlined as common bodily exercise. Occupations with heavy bodily labor at work, akin to porters, miners, loaders, and unloaders, had been outlined as heavy bodily actions. The each day strolling time was divided into ≤ 2, 2–4, and > 4 h in accordance with the third quartile.
Usually distributed knowledge had been described as imply ± commonplace deviation, and comparability between teams was performed through a t-test. Non-normally distributed knowledge had been outlined with median plus interquartile vary, and comparability between teams was carried out through Wilcoxon or Kruskal–Wallis rank sum take a look at. Categorical variables had been described as noticed numbers and percentages and in contrast through a chi-square take a look at. The connection between oil tea consumption and irregular blood lipids was evaluated by logistics regression evaluation. All statistical analyses had been carried out in SPSS software program.
Demographic Traits of the Research Topics
A complete of two, 001 topics with a mean age of 57.20 ± 11.60 years are enrolled on this examine. The median quantity consumption of oil tea within the inhabitants was 360 mL. The medians of TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C had been 5.46, 1.05, 3.34, and 1.70 mmol/L, respectively. The prevalence charges of weight problems, belly weight problems, excessive TC, excessive TG, excessive LDL-C, and low HDL-C had been 7.6%, 30.5%, 24.3%, 13.0%, 21.6%, and 0.7%, respectively. (Table 1).
Desk 1 Baseline Traits of the Research Members
Relationship Between Oil Tea Consumption and Vitality and Nutrient Consumption
In total members, the intakes of vitality and protein in group Q2 had been considerably larger than these in group Q1. The intakes of vitality, protein, fats, carbohydrate and ldl cholesterol in group Q3 had been considerably larger than these in group Q1. The intakes of vitality, protein, carbohydrate and ldl cholesterol in group This fall had been considerably larger than these within the non-drinking oil tea group. The intakes of vitality, fats, protein, carbohydrate and ldl cholesterol in group This fall had been considerably larger than these in teams Q1 and teams Q2. In males, the intakes of vitality, protein, fats, and ldl cholesterol in group Q3 and This fall had been considerably larger than these in group Q1. The intakes of vitality, carbohydrate and protein in group Q2 had been considerably larger than these in group Q1 and the intakes of carbohydrate in This fall was considerably larger than these within the non-drinking oil tea group. In girls, the intakes of vitality, protein, and carbohydrate in group This fall had been considerably larger than these in group Q1. The intakes of vitality and ldl cholesterol in group This fall had been considerably larger than these in group Q3 (Figure 1).
Affiliation of Each day Consumption of Oil Tea with Weight problems and Dyslipidemia
In total members, the TC and LDL-C ranges within the Q2 group had been considerably larger than these within the non-drink oil tea group. The TG stage within the Q3 group was considerably decrease than that within the non-drink oil tea group and the Q1 group. The HDL-C ranges within the Q2 and Q3 teams had been considerably larger than these within the non-drink oil tea group. In males, the systolic strain within the This fall group was considerably decrease than that within the Q1 group, and the diastolic strain within the Q2, Q3, and This fall group was considerably decrease than that within the Q1 group. In girls, the HDL-C stage within the This fall group was considerably larger than that within the non-drink oil tea group and Q1 group (Figure 2).
The incidence of belly weight problems and low HDL-C tended to lower considerably (P for pattern <0.05) with rising each day consumption of oil tea (Table 2). Within the a number of regression mannequin, oil tea consumption considerably decreased the danger of belly weight problems and low HDL-C (P for pattern <0.05) in total members. The Q3 and This fall teams had been associated to a low danger of belly weight problems, the OR values had been 0.545 (95% CI:0.336–0.884) and 0.520 (95% CI:0.311–0.871). The each day consumption of oil tea teams Q1, Q2, Q3, and This fall had been related to a low danger of low HDL-C, the OR values had been 0.191 (95% CI: 0.037–0.982), 0.177 (95% CI: 0.032–0.973), 0.085 (95% CI: 0.014–0.517) and 0.045 (95% CI: 0.004–0.538), respectively. When the stratified evaluation was carried out in accordance with gender. The outcomes had been vital just for girls and there was a reducing pattern of belly weight problems with rising oil tea consumption. In girls, the Q2 group was related to a excessive danger of excessive LDL-C, the OR worth was 2.600 (95% CI: 1.033–6.546) (Table 3).
Desk 2 Distribution of Weight problems and Dyslipidemia Amongst Totally different Oil Tea Teams
Desk 3 Affiliation of Each day Consumption of Oil Tea with Weight problems and Dyslipidemia
Affiliation of Tea Content material in Oil Tea with Weight problems and Dyslipidemia
In total members, the This fall group was associated to a low danger of belly weight problems when put next with the non-drink oil tea group, the OR worth was 0.537 (95% CI: 0.327–0.881). The tea content material in oil tea considerably decreased the danger of low HDL-C (P for pattern <0.05). The Q1, Q2, Q3, and This fall teams had been related to a decrease danger of low HDL-C when put next with the non-drink oil tea group, the OR values had been 0.176 (95% CI: 0.034–0.924), 0.171 (95% CI: 0.032–0.915), 0.074 (95% CI: 0.010–0.549) and 0.073 (95% CI: 0.010–0.537), respectively. When the stratified evaluation was carried out in accordance with gender. The affiliation of tea content material in oil tea with belly weight problems and low HDL-C had been vital just for girls and there was a reducing pattern of belly weight problems with rising tea content material in oil tea. In males, the tea content material in oil tea considerably elevated the danger of excessive TC (P for pattern <0.05). Nevertheless, no vital distinction was discovered within the affiliation between tea content material in oil tea and excessive TC. In girls, the Q2 group was related to a excessive danger of excessive LDL-C, the OR worth was 2.760 (95% CI: 1.096–6.950) (Table 4).
Desk 4 Affiliation of Tea Content material in Each day Consumption of Oil Tea with Weight problems and Dyslipidemia
Affiliation of Ginger Content material in Oil Tea with Weight problems and Dyslipidemia
In total members, the Q1 and Q2 group had been related to a low danger of belly weight problems, the OR values had been 0.612 (95% CI: 0.375–0.998) and 0.579 (95% CI: 0.354–0.945), respectively. The Q1 and This fall teams had been related to a low danger of low HDL-C, the OR values had been 0.047 (95% CI: 0.004–0.527) and 0.113 (95% CI: 0.018–0.700), respectively. When the stratified evaluation was carried out in accordance with gender. The outcomes had been vital just for girls (Table 5).
Desk 5 Affiliation of Ginger Content material in Each day Consumption of Oil Tea with Weight problems and Dyslipidemia
Most Asian people with weight problems are categorized to have belly weight problems. They usually deposit extreme visceral fats, and this insulin resistance is often severe, tough to right, and intently associated to heart problems.21 The prevalence fee of belly weight problems within the examine inhabitants was 30.5%, which was 12% decrease than the prevalence fee within the China Well being and Vitamin Survey.22
On this examine, we discovered that because the consumption of oil tea will increase, the consumption of carbohydrates, fat, and ldl cholesterol will increase. Greater carbohydrate consumption was related to larger hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL ranges.23 As well as, larger intakes of whole fats and ldl cholesterol had been related to larger TC and LDL-C ranges.24 Oil tea consumption was accompanied by a rise in vitality and carbohydrate, fats and ldl cholesterol consumption, which can clarify the upper TC and LDL-C ranges within the Q2 group in comparison with the non-oil tea consuming group. Because of this, dietary vitality and nutrient intakes have been adjusted.
Earlier epidemiological investigations discovered that ingesting tea has the impact of shedding pounds. Bouchard et al25 discovered that males who drank greater than 2 cups of tea per day had decrease BMI and WC values than males who by no means drank drink tea. Nevertheless, after adjusting for additive use, the affiliation between tea consumption and BMI or WC had been not vital. Nagao et al26 discovered that the lack of weight, physique fats mass, WC, and subcutaneous fats space of sufferers who’ve belly weight problems and obtain 583 mg of catechin each day for 12 weeks are greater than these of sufferers who’ve belly weight problems and take 96 mg of catechins each day. After adjustment for covariates, our examine demonstrates oil tea consumption was considerably and negatively related to the danger of belly weight problems. Once we stratified the evaluation in accordance with gender, solely the outcomes for girls had been vital. A cross-sectional examine from Poland additionally discovered a big discount within the prevalence of belly weight problems in girls with elevated tea consumption, however no vital affiliation in males.27 Some research didn’t discover a vital discount in waist circumference with inexperienced tea consumption.28,29 On this examine, oil tea performs a weight-reducing impact doubtless as a result of it has a wide range of uncooked supplies, akin to tea leaf and ginger. Inexperienced tea extract was proven to have the power to cut back physique weight and fats accumulation.30 Ginger is assumed to have a weight-regulating impact alone.10,31
In total members, the prevalence of low HDL-C decreased considerably with rising oil tea consumption and the tea content material in oil tea. Earlier epidemiological investigations have additionally discovered a useful impact of tea consumption on HDL-C. A Nationwide Well being and Vitamin Examination survey within the US discovered that sizzling tea consumption was related to useful biomarkers of heart problems danger, akin to HDL-C.32 A population-based case–management examine in China discovered that oolong tea consumption considerably decreased the danger of low HDL-C.33 We discovered that the Q2 teams of oil tea consumption and the tea content material in oil tea had been related to a excessive danger of Excessive LDL-C in girls. Nevertheless, there was no vital rising pattern of excessive LDL-C with the rise of oil tea consumption. Our outcomes counsel that consumption of excessive doses of oil tea was not related to excessive LDL-C, whereas excessive doses of oil tea within the total members have a decreased danger of low HDL-C. Conventional Chinese language drugs typically consists of various compounds performing in synergy to completely exploit their useful results within the type of a complete extract. Tea polyphenols might inhibit intestinal lipid absorption and enhance the excretion of bile acids, ldl cholesterol, and whole lipids,34,35 these results assist to cut back the metabolic abnormalities and fatty liver illness brought on by a high-fat eating regimen. Apart from, tea polyphenols can promote lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase, thereby attenuating lipogenesis, selling lipolysis, and lowering lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes.36,37 Gingerol could also be associated to selling insulin sensitivity by regulating cell vitality metabolism or lowering free fatty acid contents. Moreover, gingerol might inhibit pancreatin exercise by lowering fats and ldl cholesterol absorption, thereby inhibiting the rise in plasma and tissue lipid ranges.38 Zhu et al11 discovered that oil tea was additionally wealthy in soluble sugar and caffeine. Tea polysaccharides can inhibit weight problems by affecting fatty acid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acid extension, and glycerophospholipid metabolism.39 Caffeine reduces weight by reducing meals consumption,40 rising vitality expenditure at relaxation,41 and enhancing athletic means.42 Due to this fact, the lipid-lowering impact of oil tea could also be brought on by the interplay of a number of lively substances.
On this examine, we’ve rigorously managed for weight problems and dyslipidemia danger elements. We use grams of tea and ginger to measure tea consumption. This can be a greater measure of tea and ginger consumption that no less than partially displays the consumption of lively elements. Apart from, our mixed use of FFQ offers a extra correct evaluation of regular consumption than both parameter alone. There are some limitations to our examine. First, the evaluation is cross-sectional. Whereas the associations discovered are attention-grabbing, it’s noteworthy that the demographic associations don’t point out causality in any approach. Second, the consumption of oil tea and meals used for evaluation on this examine was self-reported and to some extent influenced by the recall and social desirability bias. Third, though we adjusted for some potential confounders, the opportunity of residual confounders couldn’t be averted. For instance, the potential impact of APOE gene polymorphisms on LDL ranges.
Oil tea consumption is negatively related to belly weight problems and high-dose oil tea consumption considerably decreased the danger of irregular HDL-cholesterol. Potential research with giant pattern sizes could be required to additional examine this affiliation.
The examine was supported by the Nationwide Pure Science Basis of China (grant No.81760577, 81560523 and 81960583), the Guangxi Science and Know-how Growth Venture (grant No. AD17129003 and AD18050005), the Pure Science Basis for Innovation Analysis Group of Guangxi (grant No. 2019GXNSFGA245002) and the Guangxi Scholarship Fund of Guangxi Training Division of China.
The authors report no conflicts of curiosity on this work.
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